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What the vitamin?! – Everything you need to know about vitamins

We know that vitamins are important for us – If we get too few of them, we get ill. But what vitamins are there, and how can we take them in natural ways – e.g. via our food? We’ve prepared for you a summary of the most important and essential vitamins:

Vitamin A 

Also known as axerophtol and retinol. Fat-soluble. Heat-resistant.

Effects: Important for bones, teeth, mucous membranes, skin regeneration and eyes.

Deficiency symptoms: Night blindness, weak immune system

Largest concentrations found in: Liver, dairy produce, eggs, carrots, leafy green vegetables

Daily requirement: 1mg*


Vitamin B1 

Also known as aneurine and thiamine. Water-soluble. Heat-sensitive.

Effects: Carbohydrate metabolism, thyroid gland, nervous system

Deficiency symptoms: Weakness, nervous complaints, muscular disorders

Largest concentrations found in: Meat (especially pork), oatmeal, nuts and seeds

Daily requirement: 1.5-2mg*


Vitamin B2 

Also known as riboflavin, lactoflavin or vitamin G. Water-soluble. Heat-resistant.

Effects: Growth, nutrient breakdown

Deficiency symptoms: Headaches, reddened skin

Largest concentrations found in: Meat, dairy produce

Daily requirement: 1.5-5mg*


Vitamin B3 

Also known as niacin, nicotinamide, nicotinic acid or vitamin PP. Water-soluble. Heat-resistant.

Effects: Breakdown of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, skin health

Deficiency symptoms: Skin problems, weakness, depression

Largest concentrations found in: Meat, fish, eggs, nuts, offal, vegetables

Daily requirement: 15-20mg*


Vitamin B5 

Also known as pantothenic acid. Water-soluble. Heat-sensitive.

Effects: Energy metabolism, tissue repair

Deficiency symptoms: Poor tissue repair, weakening of immune system

Largest concentrations found in: Meat, liver, eggs (vitamin B5 is found widely in foodstuffs)

Daily requirement: 10mg*


Vitamin B6 

Also known as adermine, pyridoxol, pyridoxine, pyridoxal or pyridoxamine. Water-soluble.

Effects: Protein metabolism, blood formation, nerve function

Deficiency symptoms: Skin problems, weakness, anemia

Largest concentrations found in: Meat, vegetables, nuts, whole grains

Daily requirement: 2mg*


Vitamin B7 

Also known as biotin, vitamin H, vitamin I or vitamin Bw. Water-soluble. Heat-resistant.

Effects: Health of skin, hair and nails, energy metabolism

Deficiency symptoms: Skin complaints, hair loss, depression, nausea, exhaustion

Largest concentrations found in: Cow’s liver, egg yolks (raw egg whites contain avidin, a substance that renders biotin practically ineffective), leafy green vegetables

Daily requirement: 0.3mg*


Vitamin B9 

Also known as folic acid, vitamin M or vitamin Bc. Water-soluble. Sensitive to high heats.

Effects: DNS replication, cell maturation (especially red blood corpuscles)

Deficiency symptoms: Pernicious anemia, during pregnancy: Birth defects

Largest concentrations found in: Liver, leafy green vegetables

Daily requirement: 0.4mg*


Vitamin B12 

Also known as cobalamin or erythrotin. Water-soluble. Heat-resistant.

Effects: Cell division, blood formation, nerve function

Deficiency symptoms: Brain and nerve damage, weakness, depression, psychosis, pernicious anemia

Largest concentrations found in: Liver, meat, fish, eggs, NO vegetable products

Daily requirement: 5µg*


Vitamin C 

Also known as ascorbic acid. Water-soluble. Heat-sensitive.

Effects: Immune system, antioxidants, metabolism, connective tissue

Deficiency symptoms: Scurvy

Largest concentrations found in: Rosehips, green cabbage, fruit and vegetables

Daily requirement: 100mg*


Vitamin D 

Also known as calcitriol or calciferol. Fat-soluble. Heat-resistant.

Effects: Calcium and phosphate levels, bone health

Deficiency symptoms: Rickets, bone softening, osteoporosis

Largest concentrations found in: Sunlight (produced by the skin), egg yolks, fish, liver

Daily requirement: 10µg*


Vitamin E 

Also known as tocopherol. Fat-soluble. Heat-resistant.

Effects: Antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, immune system

Deficiency symptoms: Wrinkled/dry skin, weakness, listlessness

Largest concentrations found in: Nuts, egg yolks, fruit and vegetables

Daily requirement: 30mg*


Vitamin K 

Also known as phylloquinone or menaquinone. Fat-soluble. Heat-resistant.

Effects: Coagulation factors

Deficiency symptoms: Impaired blood coagulation

Largest concentrations found in: Leafy green vegetables, cabbage, eggs, liver

Daily requirement: 120-1000µg*


*The daily requirement of all vitamins is much debated and those stated thus vary accordingly. As a rule, overdose occurs only when the daily requirement is very greatly exceeded and in practice arises only very rarely without taking vitamin supplements.


Source of overview:

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